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Añadiendo énfasis con las cleft sentences




Cuando queremos añadir énfasis a alguna parte de una frase se utilizan en inglés lo que se llaman cleft sentences. Las cleft sentences no son más que una forma de enfatizar aquello que queremos resaltar sobre lo que estamos diciendo. Para hacerlo, lo que se hace es añadir ciertas palabras al principio de la frase, y es lo que se conoce como cleft sentence.

Dicho así parece un tanto abstracto y estaréis pensado: ¿de qué demonios está hablando? No os preocupéis. Lo entenderéis perfectamente. Existen cuatro maneras de hacerlo.

What or All

La primera manera de añadir énfasis es añadiendo al principio de la frase what o all. Si decís I need a coffee (necesito un café), dicho así, bien, vale necesitas un café, pero si no me lo dices con un tono diferente igual ni siquiera te hago caso. Ahora bien, si me dices What I need is a coffee (lo que necesito es un café), vale, ahora sí, ahora ya me doy por enterado de que realmente lo que necesitas es un café. ¿Véis el efecto de enfatizar?

Se forma mediante What or All + oración + be y después la parte de la frase que queremos enfatizar.

I don't like the food here.
What I don't like here is the food.

I just want to play the piano.
All I want is to play the piano.

I only looked at it!
All I did was look at it.

What happens is.../ What happened was....

La segunda forma es introduciendo al principio de la frase "lo que pasa es..." o "lo que pasó fue...." que son los equivalentes en inglés a what happens is.... y what happened was... Se suele utilizar para enfatizar un evento o una sequencia de eventos.
  

You do a reading test and then you have the writing part.
What happens is (that) you do a reading test and then you have the writing part.

We came across David at the airport.
What happened was (that) we came across David at the airport.

  

The person who, The place where, The first/last time, The reason why


Otra manera de añadir énfasis es a través de expresiones cómo the person who..., the place where... etc.

Se forma mediante The person who..., The place where....,etc + oración + be

I spoke to my sister.
The person who I spoke to was my sister.

We went to Nepal last year
The place where we went last year was Nepal.

I last saw him on Sunday.
The last time I saw him was on Sunday.

I picked my children up from school because my wife told me to do so.
The reason why I picked my children up from school was because my wife told me to do so.

It

La última forma de cleft sentence es añadir It is/was + la parte de la frase enfatizada + oración relativa.

A girl in my team won the prize.
It was a girl in my team who won the prize.

We visited our family last Friday.
It was last Friday when we visited our family.


Tenemos que tener una precaución con éste último tipo de cleft sentence. Si la parte que queremos enfatizar es un pronombre (I, you, he, she, etc.), normalmente se usa el pronombre de objeto correspondiente (me, you, him, etc.). Por ejemplo:

I broke the window.
It was me who broke the window.
It was I who broke the window.

Hagamos ahora un par de ejercicios.

Ejercicio 1: Completa las siguientes frases con una sola palabra


1. __________was my father who told me not to marry him.

2.___________love about Fridays is knowing you don't have to work the next day.

3.The________why I want you to come early is so that we can have some time on our own.

4.After you've sent in your CV, what________next is that you get called for an interview.

Ejercicio 2: Reescribe las frases siguientes con la palabra que está en negrita


1. He left his wife because she cheated on him.
REASON
_______________________________she cheated on him.

2.We ended up eating in an absolutely beautiful beach. 
PLACE
________________________________was an absolutely beautiful beach.

3. They didn't get to the airport in time for the flight, which really surprised me.
WHAT
____________________________they didn't get to the airport in time for the flight.

4. I first met my wife at a meeting in Paris.
TIME
_____________________________at a meeting in Paris.


Espero las respuestas a los ejercicios en los comentarios!!

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3 comentarios:

  1. EJERCICIO 1: COMPLETA LAS SIGUIENTES FRASES CON UNA SOLA PALABRA

    1. It was my father who told me no to marry him.

    2.What I love about Fridays is knowing you don't have to work the next day.

    3.The reason why I want you to come early is so that we can have some time on our own.

    4.After you've sent in your CV, what happens next is that you get called for an interview.

    EJERCICIO 2: REESCRIBE LAS FRASES SIGUIENTES CON LA PALABRA QUE ESTÁ EN NEGRITA

    1. He left his wife because she cheated on him.
    REASON
    The reason why he left her was that she cheated on him.

    2.We ended up eating in an absolutely beautiful beach.
    PLACE
    The place where we ended up eating was an absolutely beautiful beach.

    3. They didn't get to the airport in time for the flight, which really surprised me.
    WHAT
    What surprised me was that they didn't get to the airport in time for the flight.

    4. I first met my wife at a meeting in Paris.
    TIME
    The first time I met my wife was at a meeting in Paris.

    ResponderEliminar
  2. Cuando dices se usa el pronombre de objeto correspondiente (me, your, him, etc.) ¿ no es you, sin r?

    ResponderEliminar
    Respuestas
    1. Sí, tienes razon, es un erro tipográfico. Es el pronombre "you" sin la r. El otro es el posesivo "your".

      Gracias!!

      Eliminar